Assignment 1: The Interaction of Media

Find three examples of artists whose practice and/or imagery are, or have been, influenced by new media (photography, film, television, radio, electronic or digital media etc.) since the beginning of the twentieth century.

Choose one or more worked by these artists to analyse in more depth. Try to find out why these artists work in their chosen medium rather than traditional painting, sculpture etc. (You may need to read the artists’ own accounts of their work to answer this question.)

Since starting the course I have considered, deliberated and worried about which artists I would choose for this first assignment. Film was the first artistic medium that I developed an interest that surpassed mere entertainment, and because of this holds particular fascination for me. I am increasingly inspired by artists that use the moving image in innovative and surprising ways, and the three artworks  I have chosen to discuss have all surprise with either their form, content or presentation: Lorna Simpson explores a personal memory from childhood in a way that resonates for the audience but only makes sense when viewed as part of an exhibition and in the context of her earlier work; Kelly Richardson creates a powerful video installation that comments on the very future of the human race with a high definition video installation presented on a 50 foot panoramic screen that immerses the viewer; and Steve McQueen is the only artist to have won both the Turner prize and an Oscar and uses techniques that he employed in his video installations but extending these into a feature length narrative film.

Lorna Simpson – Momentum (2012)

I knew little about Lorna Simpson other than an article I had read in the ‘British Journal of Photography’ about nominees for the 2014 Deutsche Börse prize when I viewed her retrospective exhibition at the Baltic.

‘Momentum’  (2012) is presented in the centre of the gallery space – two large projection screens are suspended from the ceiling with the displayed images viewable from either side allowing the audience to experience the work in tandem with the still images displayed on the gallery wall. There is a lack of narrative structure and no clear beginning and end to the piece which allows us to dip into the images on screen at any point and still make sense of what is happening. The scenes shown on each screen are duplicated, although slightly out of sync, which makes us look from image to image while being a disorientating viewing experience. The positioning of the work, towards the end of the exhibition and therefore one of the more recent of Simpson’s artworks is important because by this point we have gained some insight into the recurring themes of Simpson’s work: identity, race, femininity, reality, memory – on an immediate level, ‘Momentum’ makes intuitive sense.

‘Momentum’ begins with a group of male and female dancers standing in what appears to be a dance studio wearing gold clothing, gold body paint and afro wigs. For an indeterminate length of time we watch the dancers do very little, they appear to be waiting and there is a sense of nervous energy, some of them stretch and adjust their costumes. A sudden cut and a number of dancers are in the centre of the room pirouetting on the spot with great energy and to the point of exhaustion. As some dancers tire, they are replaced by others who take their place and continue with the same activity. We wonder what the purpose of this is – is it practice or are they performing, looking for approval from someone – maybe us, the audience? We realise that the dance studio is missing one thing – the practice mirror. Perhaps the intention is that the camera and therefore, us as the audience, are the mirror? If this is the case then questions about looking and voyeurism are being raised, are we viewing this scene without the dancer’s knowledge? The sound of the dancers movement adds a kind of steady percussion which becomes quite mesmerising. When eventually the film loops round to the beginning, the dancers now look like they are resting rather than waiting, preparing themselves for the next round of practice.

The form of ‘Momentum’ – a moving rather than still image is only part of what differentiates the piece with the majority of Simpson’s other work, much of which is concerned with the relationship between image and text and the way this can interact to develop a narrative. There is no dialogue in ‘Momentum’, the meaning is uncertain – reading about the piece we learn that it is based upon the artist’s experience, a dance performance when she was around twelve years old. She did not enjoy the experience of performing: “getting on stage shocked me, the reality of what being on stage meant.” The disappointment felt at viewing her mother’s photographs of the performance is also key, and an important insight into one of her preoccupations as an artist “[the] kids looked like little specks of dark blue from an instamatic camera.” (Simon J. et al, 2013)The performance she remembered in her head was nothing like these pictures and she felt the need to recapture the moment, the creation of ‘Momentum’ can be read as her desire to recreate this event. Despite this, without the information gained from reading about Simpson’s inspiration, it is unlikely we would be able to ascertain that this is what the work is about. The difficulties of finding meaning in a piece are summed up by Simpson: “With ‘Momentum’ I wanted a clear photograph of something hidden. I like surprises, I like being unsure, trying things that might be stupid, doing something unknown to look for a trajectory other than the one the work is known for.” (Kaplan C.) It could be read that the piece is concerned with focussing our attention as an audience to the act of looking, the fallibility of memory and the nature of performance and reporformance.

Momentum available here

Kelly Richardson – ‘Mariner 9’ (2012)


Kelly Richardson is a video installation artist who creates landscapes part real, part unreal, with digital effects added to make the art works impossible, improbable or unreal. ‘Mariner 9’ is a large scale, immersive video installation showing a panoramic view of the surface of Mars two centuries in the future. After taking in the hyper-real yet alien landscape with subtly changing lighting, wind and dust blowing across the surface, we notice that the planet is littered with discarded space probes, some of which are still partially functioning, although their abandoned state and time worn appearance suggest it is unlikely that any activity they display is of any value. This makes us wonder about Earth’s future: could the state of these probes indicate something sinister back home?

Scale is clearly an integral part of ‘Mariner 9’ and much of its success relies on the piece taking up our entire peripheral vision. A key influence in Richardson’s work is her visits to National parks and being overwhelmed “in the face of a massive, seemingly untouched expanse of land…For the installations to function properly, the viewer should feel consumed by them, which scale is integral to facilitating.” (Gordon, 2013) She usually uses real locations as the basis for her work before adding digital effects, ‘Mariner 9’ is the first work that is completely digital which is born out of necessity since no adequate pictures of Mars’ surface are available. Despite this, Richardson went to extreme lengths to ensure the piece is as realistic as possible, using topographic data of Mars’ surface collected by NASA – ironically this may have been transmitted by some of the probes that are depicted in the scene. Being as photo-realistic as possible was important to Richardson and critical for the audience to suspend disbelief and to believe in the what they are viewing. The influence of cinema, particularly science fiction, can be seen in ‘Mariner 9’; The subject matter references the recent trend for apocalyptic storylines which have been prevalent in film making over the last ten years and suggest the uncertainty we have about our current trajectory and the consequences this may have. Richardson says about ‘Mariner 9’: “It suggest a relationship between the potential we have to achieve amazing feats and our abilities to do great things – and the fact that as a species we are destructive at the same time – we can’t help but destroy everything we touch.” (Gordon, 2013) The piece shows a logical progression in her work as she moves away from more traditional and recognisable scenes using real settings towards work like this which is completely imagined a kind of modern sublime.

Mariner 9 video here:

Steve McQueen: Hunger (2009)


Steve McQueen made his name in the art world, winning the Turner prize in 1999 for his video installation ‘Deadpan’ which is inspired by the physical comedy Buster Keaton. ‘Hunger’ was McQueen’s first piece of narrative cinema and his background as an artist shows through his unconventional structure and visual style which often holds a shot much longer than we have become accustomed to in modern cinema, an effect which is unsettling and forces the viewer to consider much harder what they are viewing. McQueen is characteristically abrupt talking about the difference between art and cinema: “It’s not about artists. Artists are crap. It’s about people with ideas. There’s too much attention to artists.” (

The inspiration for ‘Hunger’ comes from an early childhood memory, much like Simpson with ‘Momentum’. When McQueen was 11 he recalls seeing reports of IRA prisoner Bobby Sands and his hunger strike on the news each night: “There was a number underneath his image, and I thought that that was his age, but I noticed that each night the number increased, and I realised that wasn’t his age, it was the number of days he had gone without food. To an 11-year-old, the idea of someone who in order to be heard was not eating left an impression on me. I don’t know why this image stayed with me, but it is a very strong memory.” (Grant, 2011) McQueen was driven to tell Bobby Sands story because in his opinion the hunger strikes represents an important historical event which has been swept under the carpet.

‘Hunger’ has three distinct sections – possibly a conscious nod to classical Hollywood narrative structure despite subverting this convention. The first act introduces us to conditions for both prisoners and guards, the tone is objective, dispassionate even; the grim realities of life for both are shown but McQueen is not concerned with balance: “I don’t think people are bad in general, but circumstances make them do what they have to.” (Calhoun) Both the first and third acts are almost entirely without dialogue, any speech is fractured and there is no score. The middle section however is an intense 22 minute scene (17 and a half minutes of which is a single shot)in which Bobby Sands (Michael Fassbender) discusses with a priest (Liam Cunningham) his intention to go on hunger strike. Sands is revealed to be articulate, compelling and complex. Not only is the scene central in the running time of the film, it is also integral to the audience’s understanding: “I was interested in the whole notion of intimacy, the intimacy of the conversation. What often happens in films is the audience is involved in that conversation – there’s a shot of you, then it reverses and then there’s a shot of me. But I didn’t want the audience involved in that. It’s not their business. These guys are not talking to them, they’re talking to each other…You have a situation where the audience thinks it shouldn’t be involved, so your attention is heightened and your focus is sharpened.” (

The final act, again mainly silent, shows the brutal reality of what it is to starve to death. And yet, it is filmed in an almost poetic way. McQueen describes the final scenes as having a sense of Sands spirit being a balloon that wants to leave the room. On the structure of the film he says: “I had this idea of the structure as like a river that turns into a rapid which turns into a waterfall. This analogy of narrative, of a route is what I wanted to bring the audience along to a situation that he can or she can identify with her surroundings. Then there is a fracture, a disturbance. The reality that ensues is distorted of course. The waterfall is the suspense of reality – death. In some ways the situation in this film’s narrative is that it goes against nature of course, because as human beings we do anything to survive. So, that someone would decide to die is very profound.” (Grant, 2011)

That Steve McQueen seems to have made the transition from artist to film maker while retaining the clarity of vision he display in his gallery based work, and that this has been accepted by critics and the public alike who may not be typical exhibition visitors is remarkable, and yet I wonder how ‘Hunger’ would have been received had it been a first film presented to an audience unfamiliar with the directors art world background? If we believe that this prior knowledge is important to our understanding then surely it must also apply to ‘Momentum’ and ‘Mariner 9’? While it is true that each of these works can be viewed in isolation, I would argue their strength and our understanding increases if we understand the continuing themes and concerns from the artists earlier work. Each also shares the strange, contradictory similarity that although they clearly embody each artists vision they are open enough to individual interpretation to allow the viewer a personal connection which strengthens their resonance.


Bickers, P. Let’s Get Physical: Steve McQueen interviewed by Patricia Bickers. Art Monthly 202, Dec-Jan 96-97 [online] Available at [accessed February 2015]

Calhoun D. (2009) Steve McQueen Interview with Dave Calhoun. Time Out. Available at [accessed February 2015] Steve McQueen: Hunger Q&A. Available at [accessed February 2015]

Gordon K. et al (2013) Kelly Richardson: The Last Frontier. Alberta: Southern Alberta Art Gallery

Grant S. (2009) Interview: Steve McQueen Q&A. Tate Etc. Issue 15: Spring 2009. [online] Available at [accessed February 2015]

Kaplan C. “It’s Interesting to be unsure” A Conversation with Lorna Simpson. ArtMag by Deutsche Bank [online] Available at [accessed February 2015]

Mariner 9: An Interview with Tyneside Cinema’s Northern Stars – Kelly Richardson [online] Available at [accessed February 2015]

Pixel Palace Artist in Residence: Kelly Richardson (interview) Available at [accessed February 2015]

Simon J. et al. (2013) Lorna Simpson. Munich: Delmonico Books – Prestel

Tunzelman A. (2014) Hunger: A Mood Piece with Impressive Historical Balance. The Guardian, 6th March 2014 [online] Available at [accessed February 2015]

Project 1-2: Fetishising the Object of Your Eye

This project asks us to read articles by Sigmund Freud, ‘Fetishism’, and Otto Fenichel, ‘The Scoptophilic Instinct and Identification’, before responding to a number of questions about the way we formalise looking and the customs, manners and taboos associated with this. The articles are written from a psychoanalytical viewpoint and are quite alien in language and tone to anything I have read before and am used to reading. Initially I felt adverse to the suggestions in both articles as the ideas they contained are not ones I particularly agree with. For example, although Freud’s idea of castration fear and the Oedipus complex are notions I am familiar with (albeit from an absorbed rather than studied perspective) they are not concepts I have given much thought to as my initial was that they seem quite ridiculous. To try and counteract my initial rejection of the articles I decided to do some background reading and allow myself some ‘soak time’ to take in the ideas presented.

Unlike the previous project, the questions posed for this exercise are not directly related to the text – I kept coming back to the articles in the hope that they would illuminate me on the answers needed but found they did not. I came to the conclusion that the point of the project is to prime my own thoughts about looking and that I should respond in a personal way using the articles as background. The key hint to this is a note on how to approach the texts, note…questions that arise in your mind as you are reading. You may not find the answer to these questions for some time, if ever, but the act of asking them and noting them down is vital to your eventual understanding.” It seems to be that thinking about how we look and see (and understand) is key to understanding visual culture – not just for the course but for always.

 How does what you have read help your understanding of why and how we look at things in a ritualised way – for instance going to an art gallery?

 Likening a gallery visit to a ritual is both appropriate to the course and accurate. In my experience there is almost always a feeling of reverence when visiting a gallery, the viewers are often solemn and serious viewing the work in silence, the experience can be likened to being in church or a library. Most visitors tend to follow the path that the work is set out and view the pieces in order. Often (I am certainly guilty of this) more time is given to reading accompanying text rather than looking at the work itself. I often feel tension when looking at a piece alongside someone else – are you invading their space? What do they think of you? Are they judging your knowledge or appreciation of the work? How long should you remain in front of the artwork before moving? The mere act of placing artwork or an object into a gallery setting elevates its status, although it may not be obvious as to whether the work is deserving or not.

Art is often collected and deemed to be of great value. Seeing artwork in a gallery setting is quite different to looking in a book or online, the object itself can have an effect on the viewer. Also, appreciation of art needs time and experience; the more art is studied the more able the student is to appreciate what they are looking at – I know this to be true from personal experience.

Thinking about an individuals motivation for viewing art and visiting a gallery led me to consider how this related to Freud’s idea of a fetish. For Freud, a fetish is deeply tied to sexual satisfaction which seems to me a little extreme, however, by thinking more along the lines of deriving pleasure from looking the idea begins to make more sense. If we take as true the notion that art appreciation increases the more art we look at then it would follow that we gain pleasure from this increased knowledge.

 Do the articles suggest to you reasons for staring at someone being at best bad manners and at worst threatening?

 For Fenichel, staring at someone is a sadistic act. He uses the examples of a magician hypnotising through a look and a snake fixing an animal in its gaze before devouring it as well as citing the idea that when we look closely at something we “devour” it with our eyes. He states that the eye plays a double part: actively sadistic – the person who looks putting a spell on the other, and, passively receptive – the person who looks back is fascinated by what they see. He sees the fixed gaze or stare as being linked to libidinal looking and sexual fore pleasure in adults.

As I read the Fenichel article I thought about ideas such as –

  • Love at first sight (‘their eyes met across the room’, has connotations of being welcome and mutual.)
  • Lecherous behaviour – for example the dirty old man deriving pleasure by looking at young girls (unwelcome, invasive.)
  • Eyes being the window to the soul – the idea that some inner truth can be gleaned through looking directly into someone’s eyes.
  • Voyeurism – which has connotations of deriving pleasure from looking and not being seen by the person you are looking at, more acceptably could be termed ‘people watching’ where others behaviour is observed.

I also noted the question ‘is all looking really sexual’ to which my initial reaction would be no unless you substitute sexual for pleasure.

The articles do not consider the idea of exhibitionism, that is that people actively want to be seen. A number of examples of this common in modern life would be –

  • Fashion, that is wearing clothes that give clues to your inner being or deliberately wearing provocative or revealing attire to attract attention.
  • Tattoos – which have become socially acceptable, even welcome in modern times and are often shown off for all to see. Also, piercings.
  • Sharing photographs – social media makes this phenomenon commonplace and allows us to show our ‘friends’ and the wider world what we are doing at all times no matter how banal.

Another thought I was struck by that confirms the idea that looking can be unwelcome and even dangerous is the idea that conflict can result from looking at someone ‘the wrong way.’ Often there can be talk of someone being looked ‘up and down’ and when referred to suggests an act of aggression or judgement.

Thinking about this question led me to remember Steve McQueen’s 2011 ‘Shame.’ The film’s main protagonist Brandon is a sex addict and the way looking with libidinal intent is explored throughout the film. One of my favourite scenes takes place on a subway train, there is no dialogue but we watch as Brandon’s eyes meet with an attractive female stranger across the carriage. At first his gaze is returned and we sense a feeling of flattery from the woman, their look is maintained and you can sense she is enjoying the attention and harmless flirtation. Things change however when she realises that Brandon has serious intentions due to his unwillingness to unlock his gaze, his expression is one of intent. She turns away and leaves the carriage, she seems shamed by her temptation, we see her wedding ring as she holds the trains rail waiting for it to stop at the next station. At the very end of the film we see the same woman again on the train, this time she is the one initiating eye contact with Brandon, the roles are reversed and it is noticeable that she is not wearing her wedding ring.

 Can you make any suggestions as to the reasons for  some  people’s  need  to avidly watch television?

 I am not sure ‘avidly watch’ is an accurate description of how most people watch television. It can often be a passive activity, ‘veg out in front of the telly’ is a common phrase. An important consideration is shared experience, thoughts about watching the same programmes can be recounted with friends and colleagues and gives something to talk about. The most popular (in terms of number of viewers) television programmes in the UK remain soap operas which are broadly heightened, recognisable scenarios which suggests the majority of people are looking for something they can identify with in the programmes they watch. Soaps also rely on the familiar and established, long running characters which could mean that viewers become invested in what is happening due to the time (sometimes years) they have spent regularly viewing. This would again suggest a passive approach. The increase in reality TV is also significant as it is now well established that programme makers choose characters to be involved based on how they think they will interact (or more importantly become at odds with each other and cause conflict.) The attraction becomes witnessing extreme behaviour from the safety of the sofa (see also Jerry Springer and Jeremy Kyle)

 What visual fetishes have you noted in everyday life – your own or others’? (An example might be a city-dweller who collects landscape paintings  to ‘replace’ real countryside.)

 The example given about a city dweller replacing the real countryside with a landscape painting is not one I readily recognise, in fact, the whole notion of a fetish being the replacement for something that is missing is not one that I agree with. When researching ‘fetish’ I came across the Marxist idea of ‘commodity fetish’ and this immediately struck more of a chord with me than the psychoanalytical definitions I had been reading about up until then. Marx believed that there is a magical power in inanimate objects and their fetishisation explains the allure of money, property and ownership under capitalism. By extension everything, including sexuality can be commodified – in fact, the lure of the erotic is often used to sell items – fetishised images of what is desirable. I find it interesting that although Marx and Freud were writing at similar times it is Marx’s ideas which resonate with me rather than Freud’s. Perhaps this is because in the modern capitalist age we now live Marx’s concept of fetishisation of commodities seems more relevant than ever, or maybe it is because this is a more easily accessible theory rather than Freud’s, particularly because Freud’s Fetish theory is from a purely male point of view.

In the modern world the term fetish is closely associated with sexual activity, for example rubber and leather fetishes. Interestingly, Freud mentions fetishes for feet and shoes which I am sure a great number of people would mention as typical fetishes if asked. It seems to me that collecting objects is a modern fetish that is both tied to Freud and Marx, the objects we collect provide status (we show them off) as well as being a form of exhibitionism. Certainly I am guilty of trying to acquire large collections – a recent, relevant example would be buying books for this course, I actively had to stop myself from purchasing more, I was confusing completing coursework with simply buying books.

 Why are people often so keen to display wedding photos or family portraits?

 Wedding and family photographs represent us at our best and happiest – I would imagine the main motivation for displaying them in our homes is to show ourselves off to visitors. This would be a form of exhibitionism that even the most reserved people could indulge in. Nowadays it is more likely that people would predominately use social networking such as Facebook to share images of themselves and what they are up to. Sometimes it seems to me that people are more concerned with their virtual rather than real life because of the amount of time they spend taking photographs and videos rather than living in the moment. It seems that social affirmation is a major motivating factor for a large amount of people.

Photography is also deeply linked with memory, remembering an important, happy time such as a wedding or our families in the idealised presentation of a professional studio photograph is probably a major motivating factor. I am reminded of Barthes ‘Camera Lucida’ which in part is a meditation on photography and loss, much of the piece is about Barthes trying to find the ‘essence’ of his recently passed mother through photographs he has of her. He discovers that finding a satisfactory image is elusive except for one particular picture taken when she was a young woman, the Winter Garden photograph.


 Unlike the first project, I find myself more confused and less sure of the responses I have given here. Because the questions posed do not directly relate to the articles I have found it difficult to find a way in to the project. My approach of doing further reading has furthered my personal knowledge (particularly in regard to Freud’s biography) but did not give me that eureka moment when everything came into focus. I know that some of the answers (or at least the catalysts for them) will be found on my book shelf but I realised that finding them at this point would take a great deal of time, which being a precious resource, led me to decide that I needed to put my thoughts down and move on. When I started making personal responses to the questions I found the writing flowed more freely, on reflection though I should have trusted my instincts more and jotted down bullet points in response to the  questions posed. In short, I would approach this project quite differently if I was able to do it again from a blank perspective.

It seems to me that this exercise being placed so early in the course is no accident. The ideas presented are quite alien and require a shift out of our comfort zones to confront. This has forced me to reflect and engage on my study methods more and how to balance what we are told to read with further personal study and my own preconceived knowledge and ideas.

 Keywords and concepts for research:

 Scoptophilic, libidinal, Ego/non ego, fetish, vicissitude, scotomized, somnambulism, myopia, somatic.

Further research:

 Otto Fenichel, Sigmund Freud, phenomenology, Martin Heidegger (‘Being and Time’), Edmund Hursel, Satre (Being and Nothingness), De Beauvoir, Derrida.


 Barthes, R. (2009) Camera Lucida. London: Vintage.

Evans, J. and Hall, S. (eds.) (1999) Visual Culture: The Reader. London: Sage.

 pp.324-326: ‘Fetishism’ Sigmund Freud

 pp.327-329: ‘The Scoptophilic Instinct and Identification’ Otto Fenichel

Freud, S. (1991) On Sexuality: Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality and Other Works. London:  Penguin.

Howells, R. Negreiros, J. (2011) Visual Culture 2nd Ed, Polity Press

Pooke, G. and Newall, D. (2008) The Basics: Art History. Oxford: Routledge.

Sturken, M. and Cartwright, L. (2009) Practices of Looking: An Introduction to Visual Culture. Oxford: Oxford University Press.